About Espad

ESPAD is a collaborative effort of independent research teams in more than forty European countries and the largest cross-national research project on adolescent substance use in the world.

The overall aim with the project is to repeatedly collect comparable data on substance use among 15-16 year old students in as many European countries as possible.

The data managed through this software application are the ‘ESPAD Trend database’, which includes ESPAD data collections from 1995 to 2019.

The database is made up of data from the ESPAD questionnaires filled in by the European students of the participating countries. There are no attributes that can trace the identity of the participating students. Personal data of the students collected in the ESPAD Trend DB 1995-2019 are: COUNTRY code, SCHOOL code, CLASS code, GENDER code, YEAR OF BIRTH, YEAR of the ESPAD study.

Data are exclusively displayed in aggregated form: by European countries participating in the study, by year of the ESPAD study and specific statistical measures (e.g. frequency distribution and prevalence rate) are calculated before visualisation by means of charts.